Audi quattro ur


Тест-драйв Audi Ur quattro: У раллийных истоков

На Чемпионате мира по ралли, где раллийная Audi quattro дебютировала в 1981 году, не все верили в ее успех. Скептиков смущал вес, который был на 100–300 кг больше, чем у конкурентов. Но уже во втором этапе – в Швеции финн Ханну Миккола принес первую победу quattro. Еще одну он добыл на Ралли Великобритании. Первое место и на счету француженки Мишель Муттон, выигравшей итальянское Ралли Сан-Ремо. Кстати, до сих пор, Мишель – единственная женщина в мире, побеждавшая на этапе WRC. Следующие три года были для модели «золотыми». В 1982-м Audi – первая в командном зачете, в 1983-м Миккола – чемпион мира, а в 1984-м Audi – первая как в зачете производителей, так и пилотов, где титул взял швед Стиг Бломквист. Успехи легендарного авто можно перечислять долго, но провести ее тест-драйв – совсем другое дело. Объектом испытаний стала стандартная Ur quattro 1991 г. в.

Для омологации раллийной Rally quattro Audi выпустила «гражданскую» версию Sport quattro c короткой базой и мотором в 306 л. с.  

Жаль, что проходят времена «честных» авто, когда за все отвечал только водитель и не приходилось ждать помощи от различных электронных помощников. Audi quattro как раз – один из «честнейших» автомобилей в мире. Единственным «помощником» в нем с 1984 года  была антиблокировочная система тормозов, но водитель мог ее отключить – для этого на торпедо имелась специальная кнопка.

В 1980 году полноприводные автомобили Audi получили имя Ur quattro, что означает первая quattro.

По современным меркам, за рулем Ur quattro чувствуешь себя непривычно. Из-за короткой передней панели  лобовое стекло находится слишком близко. Необычным кажется полностью электронный щиток приборов. А вот с оборудованием у авто полный порядок. Есть кондиционер, электростеклоподъемники, электрорегулировка зеркал. Впрочем, Ur quattro был недешевым автомобилем. Об этом свидетельствовали не только высокий уровень оснащения, но и беспрецедентное качество сборки. Так, все Ur quattro собраны вручную, и каждый автомобиль проходил жесткие тесты. Например, дождевая камера. Если другие Audi находились в ней 30 секунд, то quattro поливали 10 минут!

Отличительной особенностью интерь­ера quattro с 1989 года стал трехспицевый руль.

До 20 км/ч можно полностью заблокировать задний дифференциал, при этом автоматически отключалась и ABS.

С 1983 года авто оснащали цифровыми приборами, в 1988-м щиток обновили, а  цифры в нем стали оранжевые.

Электрорегулировка наружных зеркал не совсем удобна из-за маленького джойстика.

Как диковинка в на­ше время выглядит кнопка отключения ABS, но в ралли это действительно необходимо.

Кнопки передних электростеклоподъемников – в  цент­ральной части торпедо, сами клавиши небольшие, нет и автоматического режима.

Передние кресла – с неплохой боковой поддержкой. Все регулировки механические. Есть и полностью открывающийся люк в крыше.

Задний диван отформован на двоих пассажиров, которым здесь будет достаточно просторно и комфортно. 

За 11 лет на конвейере quattro оснащался одним из трех моторов. Все они бензиновые, пятицилиндровые с турбонаддувом. Дебютировала модель с 2,1-литровым 200-сильным двигателем, позже ему на смену пришел мотор 2,2 л (220 л. с.). Кроме объема, изменилась степень сжатия – с 7:1 до 8.6:1. В 1989 году появился обновленный двигатель с сис­темой ГРМ, в которой вместо двух клапанов на цилиндр применили четыре. Снова увеличилась степень сжатия до 9.3:1. А вот мощность оставили прежней – 220 л. с. Зато вырос крутящий момент, который теперь составил целых 309 Нм, доступных уже с 1950 об/мин.

Турбированный 2,2-литровый 20-клапанный мотор мощностью 220 л. с. появился в 1989 году. До него выпускались только 10-клапанные версии.

Именно таким двигателем оснащен тестовый Ur quattro, с которым полноприводное купе ускоряется до «сотни», всего за 6,3 с. По современным меркам, немало, но это начальная версия данного купе. Например, укороченный Sport quattro разгонялся за 5,0 с – для конца 80-х это было очень быстро. Управление Ur quattro не похоже на современные авто. Усилия на педалях значительно выше, зато в рулевом приводе гораздо больше прозрачности. На закрученных альпийских серпантинах управлять купе в предельных режимах одно удовольствие. Машина не страдает недостаточной поворачиваемостью, она буквально ввинчивается в виражи. Мотор тянет уже с самых «низов», а ощутимый турбоподхват начинается после 3000 об/ мин.

Сегодня стоимость подобного полностью оригинального Audi Ur quattro в идеальном состоянии в Германии доходит до 80 тыс. евро.

Полноприводная трансмиссия c 1987 года оснащена центральным дифференциалом Torsen, до этого «дифф» был обычным, с ручной блокировкой. А вот задний блокировался кнопкой на всех версиях.

Багажник Ur quattro невелик. Здесь же разместили запаску, бачок омывателя лобового стекла и фар головного света. Открывается багажник с помощью  рычага в проеме двери , почти как в отечественных «Запорожцах». 

Те 250 км, проведенные за рулем легендарного авто, я запомню надолго, жаль, что в Украине нет ни одного оригинального Ur quattro. Впрочем, владеть такой машиной хлопотно, на отсутствие некоторых запчастей жаловались даже представители Audi, в музее которого хранятся и обслуживаются данные автомобили.

Евгений Сокур

В Европе я ездил на очень многих авто, но именно на Audi quattro соседи по потоку и прохожие обращали максимальное внимание.

Audi Ur quattro

Тип кузова

купе

Дверей/мест

2/4

Габариты, Д/Ш/В, мм

4404/1723/1320

База, мм

2524

Клиренс, мм

170

Масса снаряженная/полная, кг

1380/1840

Объем багажника, л

н. д.

Объем бака, л

90

Тип

бенз. с распр. впр. турбо

Расп. и к-во цил./кл. на цил.

R4/4

Объем, см куб.

2226

Мощность, кВт(л. с.)/об/мин

162(220)/5900

Макс. кр. мом., Нм/об/мин

309/1950

Тип привода

пост. полн.

КП

5-ст. мех

Тормоза передние/задние

диск. вент./диск вент.

Подвеска передняя/задняя

независ./независ.

Усилитель руля

гидро

Шины

215/50 ZR15

Максимальная скорость, км/ч

230

Разгон 0–100 км/ч, с

6,3

Расх. трасса–город, л/100 км

7,8–14,5

Стоимость автомобиля, в Германии, евро

80000

www.autocentre.ua

Audi UR Quattro | eBay

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rolling shell no vin or v5

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I bought this many years ago and it wasnt the car on the book so is being sold as just rolling shell.it is in very good condition and has a couple little holes in inner A pillar.it has proper quattro ...

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    ORIGINAL AUDI GT COUPE BOOT SPOILER. REMOVED FROM A 1985 GT COUPE. BREAKING COMPLETE CAR IF YOU NEED SOMETHING ASK AND I WILL LIST IT FOR YOU. SEE ALL MY OTHER USED AUDI PARTS.

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    Audi S2 3B engine ECU

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    These stickers are manufactured to the exact size and spec as the original Quattro graphics. Digitally printed and cut from high grade 7 year vinyl with a clear gloss laminate.

  • Audi UR Quattro WR or MB black carpet. Carpet is brand new but has cracks (see photos) on the underside due to age.

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    Center heat vent for Audi Coupe GT good condition

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    Audi UR Quattro Ronal Wheel LWF 8J R15 Requires painting has a few scratches. Requires refurb.

  • AUDI COUPE UR QUATTRO ENGINE CODE WR, GV, WX. AUDI PART NUMBER IS - 857 121 341.

  • PART NUMBER;4A0035186. You must be 100% sure that the item match your requirements, if You are unsure in any way at all.

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    Pvc banner printed with indoor outdoor ink. EYE LETS in each corner ready to hang. the image is for illustration purposes only so may very slitly.

  • + £40.00 P&P

    Will need a refurb. A few scratches, requires painting.

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    To Fit An Audi UR quattro Turbo Coupe 1980 to 1991. Audi Coupe & Coupe Quattro 1980 to 88. NEW REAR LIGHT CLUSTERS. These light clusters have been remanufactured to the exact specification as the orig...

  • AIR DUCT( SHROUD) FOR -. IT`S A COPY OF GENUINE AUDI PART WHICH IS. VERY GOOD QUALITY PRODUCT THAT WILL REPLACE. AS IMPROVE COOLING AND. AUDI UR QUATTRO 1980-91. NO LONGER AVAILABLE FROM AUDI DEALER. ...

  • For reference purposes only these have an audi part number of 855827552G. a problem call us we can always sort the issue out with one of our sales team. ZE (ALL). Ph28-26, Ph40-50. PA20-49, PA60-78.

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    PART NUMBER; KBA 70082. You must be 100% sure that the item match your requirements, if You are unsure in any way at all.

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    TO FIT AN AUDI UR QUATTRO TURBO COUPE WR/MB/RR,1980 to 1991. COMPLETE BLACK STRIPING KIT.

  • £249.99

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    Original early URQ wheels VW Audi made on 1983 03 similar as Ronal R8. The wheels can be polished or sandblasted for an extra money.

  • + £0.00 P&P

    Audi 100 quattro turbo Avant. This example being the desirable pearl white car does need some remedial paint for laquer lift and other bits but perfectly usable as is without embarrassing you. So if i...

  • AUDI UR QUATTRO COUPE GT RIGHT SIDE OR LEFT (flip upside down) DASH AIR HEATER VENT INSERT VERY GOOD CONDITION

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     New fibreglass rear diff guard for Audi ur quattro. A replica of a group 4 rally quattro guard made of high strength fibreglass. Ideal for your rally car or fast road car build. Needs holes drilling ...

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    ITEM FOR SALE: AUDI UR QUATTRO RR 3B ENGINE INLET MANIFOLD. WE ARE BREAKERS OF VW AUDI SKODA SEAT. PART NUMBER: 034133223N. NN4 8JD. 50 ROTHERSTHORPE CRESCENT. VRS NORTHAMPTON.

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    AUDI 80 B2 COUPE GT UR QUATTRO REAR BACK TAILGATE BOOTLID WINDOW GLASS IN GOOD USED CONDITION. VAG PART NUMBER: -. UK - NORTHERN IRELAND, SCOTLAND, HIGHLANDS, ISLANDS ETC.

  • Genuine Audi Bonnet Stay Plastic Clip for Audi 80 90 type 81 85. Audi Coupe GT 1980>87.

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     New fibreglass rally sump guard. A replica of a group 4 rally quattro guard made of high strength fibreglass. Ideal for your rally car or fast road car build. Requires fabrication to the front panel ...

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    AUDI 80 B2 COUPE GT UR QUATTRO LEFT SIDE REAR BACK QUARTER WINDOW GLASS IN GOOD USED CONDITION. VAG PART NUMBER: -.

  • Audi ur quattro early WR tyre pressure decal. This is situated on the inside of the fuel filler flap. Part no 857 000 257. For tyre size 205/60R15. Check out my other quattro parts

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    AUDI 80 B2 COUPE GT UR QUATTRO RIGHT SIDE REAR BACK QUARTER WINDOW GLASS IN GOOD USED CONDITION. VAG PART NUMBER: -.

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    AUDI UR QUATTRO TURBO COUPE. These decals are made as per the original UR Quattro Turbo and SWB Sport decals with exact dimensions and dotted effect. BOOT LID DECALS. SILVER for dark coloured cars.

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    AUDI 80 B2 COUPE GT UR QUATTRO LEFT SIDE FRONT DOOR WINDOW DROP GLASS IN GOOD USED CONDITION. VAG PART NUMBER: -.

  • Audi ur and coupe quattro radiator fan cowling decal. CAUTION/ATTENTION part no 175 000 391 A. This decal is situated on the cooling fan cowling under the bonnet and is no longer avaliable. Check out ...

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Audi Quattro

The Audi Quattro is a road and rally car, produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi, part of the Volkswagen Group. It was first shown at the 1980 Geneva Motor Show on 3 March.[1][2]

The word quattro is derived from the Italian word for "four". The name has also been used by Audi to refer to the quattro four-wheel drive system, or any four-wheel drive version of an Audi model. To avoid confusion, the original Quattro model is also commonly referred to as the Ur-Quattro - the "Ur-" (German for "primordial" or "ancestral") is an augmentative prefix, in this case meaning "original", and is also applied to the first generation Audi S4 and Audi S6 models, as in "Ur-S4" and "Ur-S6".

The Audi Quattro was the first rally car to take advantage of the then-recently changed rules which allowed the use of four-wheel drive in competition racing. It won competition after competition for the next two years.[1] To commemorate the success of the original vehicle, all subsequent Audis with their trademark quattro four wheel drive system were badged "quattro" with a lower case "q". The original car with the upper case "Q" in the Quattro name is a collector's piece.

The Audi Quattro shared many components and the core of its body style with the Audi Coupé, which was a member of the Audi 80 (B2) model range.[1] It was internally designated Typ 85, a type number it shared with the Audi Coupé GT, Audi Coupé quattro and Audi 4000CS quattro. Its characteristic flared wheelarches were styled by Martin Smith. Audi Quattro had independent rear suspension and independent front suspension. [1][2]

Production history

The idea for a high four-wheel drive car was proposed by Audi's chassis engineer, Jörg Bensinger, in 1977, when he found that the Volkswagen Iltis jeep, could outperform any other vehicle in snow, no matter how powerful. Bensinger's idea was to start developing an Audi 80 variant in co-operation with Walther Treser, Director of Pre-Development.[3]

European market

Audi released the original Quattro to European customers in late 1980,[1] making it both the first car to feature Audi's quattro permanent four-wheel drive system (hence its name), and the first to mate four wheel drive with a turbocharged engine.[1]

The original engine was the 2,144 cc (131 cu in) (2.1 L), inline-5 cylinder 10 valve SOHC, with a turbocharger and intercooler. It produced 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) and torque of 285 N·m (210 ft·lbf) at 3500 rpm; propelling the Quattro from 0-100 km/h (62 mph) in 7.1s, and reaching a top speed of over 220 km/h (137 mph).[1]

The engine was eventually modified to a 2,226 cc (136 cu in) (2.2 L) inline-5 10 valve, still producing147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp), but with peak torque lower in the rev-range.[1] In 1989, it was then changed to a 2,226 cc (136 cu in) inline-5 20v (2.2 L 20v) DOHC setup producing 162 kW (220 PS; 217 bhp), now with a top speed of 230 km/h (143 mph).[1]

Audi Quattros are often referred to among owners and enthusiasts by their engine codes, to differentiate between the earlier and later versions: the earliest 2144 cc 10v being the "WR" engine, the 2226 cc 10v being the "MB" engine, and the later 20v being the "RR" engine. Hence, Quattro models may be referred to as either the WR Quattro, MB Quattro, and RR or "20v" Quattro, respectively.

Quattro car production was 11,452 vehicles over the period 1980–1991,[1][2] and through this 11 year production span, there were no major changes in the visual design of the vehicle. For the 1983 model year, the dash was switched from an analogue instrument cluster, to a green digital liquid crystal display (LCD) electronic instrument cluster. This was later changed in 1988 to an orange LCD electronic instrument cluster. The interior was redesigned in 1984, and featured a whole new dash layout, new steering wheel design, and new centre console design, the switches around the instrument panel were also redesigned at this time. In 1985 the dash changed slightly with harder foam and lost a diagonal stripe, the dash switches were varied slightly and the diff lock pull knob gave way to a two-position turning knob with volt and oil temp digital readouts.

1987 MB engined Audi quattro

External styling received very little modification during its production run. Originally, the car had a flat fronted grille featuring four separate headlamp lenses, one for each of the low and high beam units. This was altered for the 1983 model year, and replaced with combined units featuring a single lens, but housing twin reflectors. This was changed again, for the 1985 model year, in what has become known as the 'facelift model' and included such alterations as a new sloping front grille, headlights, and trim and badging changes. The RR 20v Quattro also featured a new three spoke steering wheel design, leather covering for door arm rests, gloveboxes, centre console and door pockets. There was also a full length leather wrapped centre console running all the way to the rear seats. 20v was also the first Ur-Q to have "quattro" script interior with partial leather seats. The floor on the drivers side had a bulge due to dual catalytic exhaust setup. The different models may be distinguished by the emblems on their boot lids: the WR had a vinyl 'quattro' decal or a brushed aluminium effect plastic emblem, the MB had chrome plated 'audi', 'audi rings' and 'quattro' emblems, whilst the RR had only chrome plated 'audi rings'.

The rear suspension was altered early on with geometry changes and removal of the rear anti-roll bar to reduce a tendency for lift-off oversteer. For the 1984 facelift, the wheel size went from 6x15" with 205/60-15 tyres to 8x15" wheels with 215/50-15 tyres. At the same time the suspension was lowered 20mm with slightly stiffer springs for improved handling. For 1987, the Torsen centre differential was used for the first time, replacing the manual centre differential lock.[1]

Sales of the Quattro in North America began with the 1983 model year, which were constructed concurrently, and were of the same design as, the European 1982 models (they did not include the minor cosmetic changes of the European 1983 model) and continued through 1986. Total sales in the USA were 664. Canadian market received cars that were identical to the US cars with exception of the speedometer, which was metric like the early Euro cars. Official sales figures for Canada were 99, which included 61 in 1983, 17 in 1984, 18 in 1985 and 3 in 1986. Although it's believed that there might have been up to 6 cars bought in 1986.

US/Canadian cars were also equipped with larger impact bumpers with built in shock absorbers, just like the rest of the 4000/Coupé models. None of the cars came with Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), however they were otherwise "loaded" with options, including air conditioning, and in 90% of the cars, leather upholstery. Most of the 1984 and 1985 Canadian models did not have sunroofs. The remainder of the electric, suspension and cosmetic updates took place at the same time as the European cars. Out of 99 cars imported to Canada 35 are still known to be on the road.

The initial 2.1L (2144cc, engine code "WX") engine for US/Canadian models included minor component and engine control unit (ECU) changes, including lowered turbocharger boost pressure, different camshaft, emission controls including catalytic converter, and lambda stoichiometric fuel control, which lowered power to 160 hp (119 kW; 162 PS). Otherwise, mechanical specifications were identical to the European spec cars. The WX engine was also used on Swiss and Japanese market cars. In fact Audi built 200 special edition cars in 1988 with WX engine and analogue instruments, the rest of the car was identical to the MB cars of that year.

Motorsport

Walter Röhrl driving a Quattro A2 at the 1984 Rally Portugal.

The original Audi Quattro competition car debuted in 1980, first as a development car, and then on a formal basis in the 1980 Janner Rally in Austria. Largely based on the bodyshell of the road-going Quattro models (in contrast to the forthcoming Group B cars), the engine of the original competition version produced approximately 300 bhp (224 kW; 304 PS). In 1981, Michèle Mouton became the first female ever to win a world championship rally, piloting an Audi Quattro.[1] Over the next three years, Audi would introduce the A1 and A2 evolutions of the Quattro in response to the new Group B rules, raising power from the turbocharged inline 5-cylinder engine to around 350 bhp (261 kW; 355 PS).

The Quattro A1 debuted at the 1983 season opener Monte Carlo Rally, and went on to win the Swedish Rally and the Rally Portugal in the hands of Hannu Mikkola. Driven by Stig Blomqvist, Mikkola and Walter Röhrl, the A2 evolution won a total of eight world rallies; three in 1983 and five in 1984.

Michèle Mouton's Audi Sport Quattro at the 2006 Goodwood Festival of Speed.

The Audi Sport Quattro was a Quattro programme car developed for homologation for Group B rallying in 1984, and sold as a production car in limited numbers.[1] It featured an all aluminium alloy 2,133 cc (130.2 cu in) (2.1 L) 20v DOHC engine slightly smaller than that of the Audi Quattro (in order to qualify for the 3-litre engine class after the scale factor applied to turbo engines). In road-going form, the engine was capable of producing 225 kW (306 PS; 302 bhp),[1] with the competition cars initially producing around 331 kW (450 PS; 444 bhp).[1]

The vehicle also featured a body shell composed of carbon-kevlar[1] and boasting wider arches, wider wheels (nine inches as compared to the Ur-Quattro's optional eight inch wide wheel rim), the steeper windscreen rake of the Audi 80 (requested by the Audi Sport rally team drivers to reduce internal reflections from the dashboard for improved visibility) and, most noticeably, a 320 mm (12.6 in) shorter wheelbase. This was carried out in order to improve handling potential in the face of newer, smaller competition, such as the Lancia 037 and the Peugeot 205 T16, which had been purpose-built from the start for Group B rules.

A total of 224 cars of this "short version" Sport Quattro were built, and were offered for sale at a heady price of 203,850 German Marks.[1]

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The Audi Sport Quattro S1 was introduced at the end of 1984 as an update to the Audi Sport Quattro. The car featured a inline 5-cylinder engine that displaced 2,110 cc (128.8 cu in) and produced an officially quoted figure of 350 kW (480 PS; 470 bhp).[1] However, the turbocharger utilised a recirculating air system, with the aim of keeping the turbo spinning at high rpm, when the driver closed the throttle, either to back off during cornering, or on gearshifts. This allowed the engine to resume full power immediately after the resumption of full throttle, reducing turbo lag. The actual power figure was in excess of 500 bhp (373 kW; 507 PS) at 8000 rpm.[1]

In addition to the improved power output, an aggressive aerodynamic kit was added that featured very distinctive wings and spoilers to the front and rear of the car to increase downforce. The weight was lightened to just 1,090 kg (2,403 lb), and now accelerate from 0-100 km/h (62 mph) in just 3.1 seconds.[1] Some of the cars were supplied with a "power-shift gearbox", which is said to be a forerunner of today's Direct-Shift Gearbox (DSG) technology.[1]

The S1 proved to be an immediate success in the rally circuit, helping Walter Röhrl[1] and Christian Geistdörfer win the 1985 San Remo Rally. A modified version of the S1, was also driven by Michèle Mouton.[1] The S1 evolution would become the final Group B car produced by Audi, with the works team withdrawing from the Championship following the 1986 rally in Portugal.[1]

Twenty years after the cancellation of Group B, the Sport Quattro S1 was still widely regarded as the most powerful rally car ever fielded in international competition, with the final factory machines of 1986 rated at an incredible 441 kW (600 PS; 591 bhp).[1] In addition to Group B competition, the S1 won the 1985 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb with Michèle Mouton in the driving seat, setting a world record time in the process. This victory was repeated in 1987, this time at the hands of Walter Röhrl.

See also

References

www.thefullwiki.org

Classic Audi Quattro for Sale

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1991

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AUDI QUATTRO TURBO 20 VALVE

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1988

£Auction

GT

  • 83,528
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: TA1088904

![CDATA[Audis headquarters are in Bavaria and has been a wholly owned (99.55%) subsidiary of Volk...

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2011

£16,495

  • 18,000
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: TA1083589

Audi A4 Allroad 3.0 Tdi Quattro Avant, 2011 61 registration, Sphere blue metallic with full Milan...

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1983

£33,950

  • 97,700
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: TA1086761

1983 Audi UR Quattro Turbo (RHD) for sale in London Recently restored to a superb standard Beauti...

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1987

£27,950

UR

  • 83,000
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: DIY1038822

MoT April 2017, absolutely Immaculate inside and out, service history is 100% complete, spared no...

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1985

£20,995

UR Quattro

  • 140,000
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: DIY1003858

Brilliant condition inside & out, mechanically sound, MoT, original interior, 20v engine, galvani...

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1983

£14,995

UR QUATTRO

  • 70,836
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: DIY1030987

Original standard, no modifications, MoT Nov 16, 4 previous owners, refurbished alloys, good tyre...

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1983

€34,900

Urquattro

  • 81,000
  • Manual
  • LHD
  • Refcode: DIY1058391

Beautiful and original condition. Exterior and interior in absolute concours condition. Aircon, b...

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1984

£122,000

  • 1,000
  • Manual
  • LHD
  • Refcode: CCFS179952

Audi Quattro S1  built 5 years ago to exacting spec of original. Used regularly with 'Rallying wi...

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2001

£2,200

A4

  • 89,000
  • Automatic
  • RHD
  • Refcode: DIYCCW1077271

MoT January 2018 - 4 new tyres, new w/pump, new timing belt, engine 3.0lt, sun roof, tow bar, nav...

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2005

£13,995

TT Sport

  • 49,505
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: TA1064032

* SIMILAR QUALITY CARS ALWAYS REQUIRED * One of 800 Special Edition Cars, an Audi Quattro TT Spo...

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1990

£5,000

V8

  • 106,930
  • Automatic
  • RHD
  • Refcode: DIY1047292

Good example, now becoming rare, less than 50 in the UK, MoT June 2017, well worth a look. Call f...

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1990

£8,500

  • 120,000
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: DIY1043174

3.6V original colour, perfect condition, leather chairs, inbuilt phone, comes with 5 brand new ty...

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1990

£3,650

AUDI QUATTRO Coupé 2.3 20V

Coupé 2.3 20V

  • 88,000
  • Manual
  • Other
  • Refcode: DIY1039516

MoT April 2017, excellent condition, low mileage, leather interior, no mechanical or electrical p...

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2004

£5,200

AUDI QUATTRO Roadster 225

Roadster 225

  • 56,000
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: DIY1030439

Full service history, graphite alloys, leather seats, heated seats, electric roof, good tyres, pr...

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1991

£24,995

UR Quattro

  • 87,636
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: TA1027887

SOLD: A fine example of the last of the line '20v' Quattro. *SIMILAR QUALITY CARS ALWAYS REQUIRED*

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1989

£16,000

  • 0
  • Manual
  • RHD
  • Refcode: CCFS228088

Audi ur Quattro turbo rs2 engine and 6speed box only covered 50k h&r springs Koni shocks full sta...

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Retrospective>>audi Ur-quattro

We couldn’t possibly have a VW Group month without featuring one of the most important cars of all time, the Audi Ur-Quattro.

The Ur-Quattro made its debut at the Geneva show in 1980, on sale to the European public a year later. Based on the cheaper Audi 80 coupe, visually, the Quattro had more aggressive styling with dramatic flared arches, deeper front bumper/spoiler and a taller rear deck spoiler.

The ‘Original’ Quattro was the first car to feature the ‘quattro’ four wheel drive system. ‘Ur’ is a German prefix for Original.  Quattro is ‘Four’ in Italian. To differentate the Ur-Quattro from the Quattro system and individual models, the coupe should  be refered to with a Capital ‘Q’.

Legend had it that VAG discovered the VW Iltis Jeep could beat any other vehicle in the snow. Audi started development on using the Iltis drivetrain in an Audi 80. At launch the road car was powered by a 2.1Litre in-line 5 cylinder 10 valve engine with turbo and intercooler (known as WR) . It produced just under 200bhp. The engine was uprated a little to 2.2Litres in 1987.

Updated again to 20v spec in 1989. During its lifetime the car remained much the same externally. Front styling was cleaned up with flush headlamps and more curvature on the front end. At the rear the lights recieved subtle updates but the 1991 model resembeled the original 1980 version.

 

The roadcar may have been an awesome machine, but it was Audi’s success in Rallying which cemented its place in Automotive History. The first Audi Quattro was a close relations to the roadcar. The A1 and A2 Quattro were immediately successful winning Rallies almost immediately.

This car is one of the first Audi Quattro Group 4 rally cars from 1982, shown here being demonstrated at Goodwood by its original driver, Hannu Mikkola. Initially the cars ran in a White livery with Audi Sport three colour stripes….a response to BMW’s M-Power graphics perhaps. 

Mikkola winning events in its first season back in 1981. Michele Mouton (above) would also win the San Remo Rally later in the season, the first woman to win a World Championship Rally.

The following year Stig Blomqvist, Hannu Mikkola and Michele Mounton won seven rallies, given Audi its first Manufactures crown.

The Quattro 'A1' Evolution was developed from the Group 4 car to meet the new Group B regulations, introduced in early 1983.

Visually, the car has wider fenders and air intakes ahead of the rear wheels..

Rallying was big back in the 1980's and the British Rally Championship was one of the toughest national series. Audi Sport UK ran a team with WRC drivers when committments allowed.

Yellow was added to the colour scheme in 1984 when HB Cigarettes became sponsor. The 3 colour Audi stripes were toned down. This shows the Quattro 'A2' in action on Rally New Zealand.

The A2 was the last evolution of the standard bodyshell.

The Audi Sport Quattro was a short wheelbase model developed for Group B rallying in 1984 at the time when Audi were coming under pressure from Lancia and Peugeot. 

In addition to the smaller footprint, the bodywork was Carbon and Kevlar, reducing the weight significantly. Front and rear track was widened and the windscreen was more vertical.

To meet Homologation, over 200 roadcars were built. These are very rare today and the ultimate Quattro to own.

The Sport Quattro made its debut in 1984. Stig Blomqvist won the drivers’ championship the same year.

1985 saw the debut of the Sport Quattro S1 rally car. The drivers were not fans of the original rally Sport Quattro, so a new more extreme version was devloped quickly.

Large front chin spoiler and oversized rear wing helped with aerodynamics, downforce and traction.

This was one of the most extreme Group B rally cars 0-60mph in 3.1seconds! 476hp.

Accidents were now common place in Group B rallying. The Speed and cost was getting out of control. Governing body FISA scrapped Group B . Audi continued for a short while with a HB sponsored Audi 200 quattro, but they were looking Stateside for their next project.

With a number of Sport Quattro chassis gathering dust, Audi decided to enter the Pikes-Peaks hill climb in Colorado, USA.  Walter Rohrl won in his first attempt in 1987 with Michele Mouton and Rohl giving Audi a hat-trick the following years.

The success in the USA gave the German manufacture massive exposure, so Audi decided to enter the American TransAm series in 1988 which Rod featured earlier this week.

This lead to the IMSA GTO Audi 90, the first period of DTM completion, Super Touring, a return to DTM and the amazing success in Sportscar, all covered on Speedhunters.

Add to this the technical and commercial success of the ‘quattro’ system and  the number of cars with four wheel drive on the street today and you can see why the Ur-Quattro was one of the most important cars of the 20th Century.

As the UK advertisments once said 'Vorsprung durk technic….as they say in Germany'

-Andy Blackmore

Images: Audi, Audi Motorsport 

Speedhunters Volkswagen Group features

Fourtitude.com Quattro Gallery – Great gallery showing various Audi Quattro rally cars

www.speedhunters.com

Audi Quattro

From Historic Racing League

The Audi Quattro is a road and rally car, produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi, part of the Volkswagen Group. It was first shown at the 1980 Geneva Motor Show on 3 March.[1][3] Production of the original version continued through 1991.

Background

The word quattro is derived from the Italian word for "four". The name has also been used by Audi to refer to the quattro four-wheel-drive system, or any four-wheel-drive version of an Audi model. The original Quattro model is also commonly referred to as the Ur-Quattro - the "Ur-" (German for "primordial", "original", or "first of its kind") is an augmentative prefix, in this case meaning "original", and is also applied to the first generation Audi S4 and Audi S6 models, as in "Ur-S4" and "Ur-S6".

The Audi Quattro was the first rally car to take advantage of the then-recently changed rules which allowed the use of four-wheel drive in competition racing. It won competition after competition for the next two years.[1] To commemorate the success of the original vehicle, all subsequent Audis with their trademark quattro four-wheel-drive system were badged "quattro" with a lower case "q" and in a distinct typeface which has remained nearly unchanged since its inception.

The Audi Quattro shared many parts and core body components with the Coupé version of the Audi 80 (B2) model range.[1] The Quattro was internally designated Typ 85, a production code it shared with the quattro versions of the Audi 80 coupé Audi 80. Its characteristic flared wheelarches were styled by Martin Smith. The Audi Quattro also had independent rear suspension and independent front suspension.[4][5]

Production history

The idea for a high-performance four-wheel-drive car was proposed by Audi's chassis engineer, Jörg Bensinger, in 1977, when he found that the Volkswagen Iltis could outperform any other vehicle in snow, no matter how powerful. Bensinger's idea was to start developing an Audi 80 variant in co-operation with Walter Treser, Director of Pre-Development.[6]

European market

Audi released the original Quattro to European customers in late 1980,[1] featuring Audi's quattropermanent four-wheel drive system (hence its name), and the first to mate four-wheel drive with a turbocharged engine.[1]

The original engine was the 2,144 cc (131 cu in) (2.1 L), inline-5-cylinder 10 valve SOHC, with a turbocharger and intercooler. It produced 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) and torque of 285 N·m (210 lbf·ft) at 3500 rpm; propelling the Quattro from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 7.1s, and reaching a top speed of over 220 km/h (137 mph).[1]

The engine was eventually modified to a 2,226 cc (136 cu in) (2.2 L) inline-5 10 valve, still producing 147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp), but with peak torque lower in the rev-range.[1] In 1989, it was then changed to a 2,226 cc (136 cu in) inline-5 20v(2.2 L 20v) DOHC setup producing 162 kW (220 PS; 217 bhp), now with a top speed of 230 km/h (143 mph).[1]

Audi Quattros are referred to among owners and enthusiasts by their engine codes, to differentiate between the earlier and later versions: the earliest 2144 cc 10v being the "WR" engine, the 2226 cc 10v being the "MB" engine, and the later 20v being the "RR" engine. Hence, Quattro models may be referred to as either the WR Quattro, MB Quattro, and RR or "20v" Quattro, respectively.

Quattro car production was 11,452 vehicles over the period 1980–1991,[1][3] and through this 11 year production span, despite some touch-ups, there were no major changes in the visual design of the vehicle. For the 1983 model year, the dash was switched from an analogue instrument cluster, to a green digital liquid crystal display (LCD) electronic instrument cluster. This was later changed in 1988 to an orange LCD electronic instrument cluster. The interior was redesigned in 1984, and featured a whole new dash layout, new steering wheel design, and new centre console design, the switches around the instrument panel were also redesigned at this time. In 1985 the dash changed slightly with harder foam and lost a diagonal stripe, the dash switches were varied slightly and the diff lock pull knob gave way to a two-position turning knob with volt and oil temp digital readouts.

1987 MB-engined Audi quattro

External styling received very little modification during its production run. Originally, the car had a flat fronted grille featuring four separate headlamplenses, one for each of the low and high beam units. This was altered for the 1983 model year, and replaced with combined units featuring a single lens, but housing twin reflectors. This was changed again, for the 1985 model year, in what has become known as the 'facelift model' and included such alterations as a new sloping front grille, headlights, and trim and badging changes. Max speed was 124 mph.[2] The RR 20v Quattro also featured a new three spoke steering wheel design, leather covering for door arm rests, gloveboxes, centre console and door pockets. There was also a full length leather-wrapped centre console running all the way to the rear seats. The 20v was also the first Ur-Q to have "quattro" script interior with partial leather seats. The floor on the drivers side had a bulge due to dual catalytic exhaust setup. The different models may be distinguished by the emblems on their boot lids: the WR had a vinyl 'quattro' decal or a brushed aluminium effect plastic emblem, the MB had chrome plated 'audi', 'audi rings' and 'quattro' emblems, whilst the RR had only chrome plated 'audi rings'.

The rear suspension was altered early on with geometry changes and removal of the rear anti-roll bar to reduce a tendency for lift-off oversteer. For the 1984 facelift, the wheel size went from 6x15-inch with 205/60-15 tyres to 8x15-inch wheels with 215/50-15 tyres. At the same time the suspension was lowered 20 mm with slightly stiffer springs for improved handling. For 1987, the Torsen centre differential was used for the first time, replacing the manual centre differential lock.[1]

The last original Audi Quattro was produced on 17 May 1991, more than two years after the first models of the new Audi Coupe range (based on the 1986 Audi 80) had been produced.[7]

North American market

Sales of the Quattro in North America began with the 1983 model year.[8] They entered the all-wheel-drive market established by the AMC Eagle, the first full-time all-wheel-drive passenger car to reach mass production.[9][10]

The North American Quattros were constructed concurrently and were of the same design as the European 1982 models (they did not include the minor cosmetic changes of the European 1983 model) and continued through 1986. Total sales in the U.S. were 664. The Canadian market cars were identical to the U.S. version with exception of the speedometer that was metric. Official sales figures for Canada were 99; which included 61 in 1983, 17 in 1984, 18 in 1985, and 3 in 1986.

The U.S./Canadian cars were equipped with larger impact bumpers with built-in shock absorbers, like the rest of the 4000/Coupé models. They did not have anti-lock braking system (ABS), but included air conditioning and leather upholstery in most of the cars. Most of the 1984 and 1985 Canadian models came without sunroofs. The remainder of the electric, suspension, and cosmetic updates took place at the same time as the European cars.

The initial 2.1 L (2144 cc, engine code "WX") engine for U.S./Canadian models included minor component and engine control unit (ECU) changes, lowered turbocharger boost pressure, different camshaft, as well as emission controls that consisted of a catalytic converter and lambda stoichiometric fuel control that lowered power to 160 hp (119 kW; 162 PS). Other mechanical specifications were identical to the European market vehicles. The WX engine was also used on Swiss and Japanese market cars. Audi built 200 special edition cars in 1988 with WX engine and analogue instruments; with everything else identical to the MB model of that year.

Audi quattro Spyder concept (1991)

The Audi quattro Spyder show car is mid-engine coupe with 2.8 litre V6 engine rated 174 PS (128 kW; 172 hp) and 181 pound-feet (245 N·m) of torque, 5-speed manual gearbox, aluminium body, 1,100 kg (2,425 lb) kerb weight, orange or green body colour, trapezoidal links suspension.

The concept car was unveiled in 1991 Frankfurt Motor Show.[11][12]

Audi quattro concept (2010)

At the Paris Motor Show in 2010 Audi presented the quattro concept. It commemorates the 30th anniversary of the original Audi Quattro and the Audi quattro four-wheel-drive system. Based on the Audi RS5, it features a modified 2.5 L five-cylinder TFSI engine and the sixth generation of quattro transmission.[13] It was reported that Audi was considering a limited production model (200–500 cars) based on the quattro concept.[14]

Audi Sport quattro concept at the Frankfurt Motor Show

The Audi Sport quattro concept was unveiled at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the original Audi Sport quattro.[15][16] The show car features angular flat C-pillars, as well as the rectangular double headlights featuring Audi's Matrix LED technology, a spoiler at the lower edge of the rear window, rectangular tail lights, 21-inch wheels, carbon fiber-ceramic brake discs, bucket seats with integrated head restraints, multifunction sport steering wheel, two driving modes (race and setup) in virtual 3D displays, Audi MMI control unit, and air conditioning. The doors and fenders are aluminum, while the roof, hood, and the rear hatch are made of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer. The front suspension features five control arms per wheel while the rear has track-controlled trapezoidal link.

Power is from a 4.0 TFSI V8 engine rated at 560 PS (412 kW; 552 hp) and 700 N·m (516 lb·ft), along with a disc-shaped electric motor rated at 150 PS (110 kW; 148 hp) and 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) (for combined power 700 PS (515 kW; 690 hp) and 800 N·m (590 lb·ft)), mated to an eight-speed tiptronic transmission. A liquid-cooled 14.1 kWh lithium-ion battery is in the rear, and the show car's range is claimed up to 50 km (31 mi) on electric power alone.

At the 2014 Geneva Motor Show, Audi presented the new 2014 Audi TT Quattro Sport Concept. It is powered by a 2.0 L four-cylinder TFSI engine that can produce 420 PS (309 kW; 414 hp) and 331 N·m (244 lb·ft) of torque. It uses Audi's Quattro AWD system and an S Tronic dual-clutch transmission.[17]

Motorsport

Quattro - A1 and A2 evolutions

Walter Röhrl driving a Quattro A2 at the 1984 Rally Portugal

The original Audi Quattro competition car debuted in 1980, first as a development car, and then on a formal basis in the 1980 Janner Rally in Austria. Largely based on the bodyshell of the road-going Quattro models (in contrast to the forthcoming Group B cars), the engine of the original competition version produced approximately 300 bhp (224 kW; 304 PS). In 1981, Michèle Mouton became the first female driver to win a world championship rally, piloting an Audi Quattro.[1] Over the next three years, Audi would introduce the A1 and A2 evolutions of the Quattro in response to the new Group B rules, raising power from the turbocharged inline 5-cylinder engine to around 350 bhp (261 kW; 355 PS).

The Quattro A1 debuted at the WRC 1983 season opener Monte Carlo Rally, and went on to win the Swedish Rally and the Rally Portugal in the hands of Hannu Mikkola. Driven by Stig Blomqvist, Mikkola and Walter Röhrl, the A2 evolution won a total of eight world rallies; three in 1983 and five in 1984. Two examples of the same car completely dominated the South African National Rally Championships during 1984 to 1988, with S.A. champion drivers Sarel van der Merwe and Geoff Mortimer.

A 1988 Audi ur-quattro driven by Audi Tradition driver Luciano Viaro won the 13th Silvretta Classic Montafon.[20]

Sport Quattro

Michèle Mouton's Audi Sport Quattro at the 2006 Goodwood Festival of Speed

The Audi Sport Quattro S1 was a Quattro programme car developed for homologation for Group B rallying in 1984, and sold as a production car in limited numbers.[1] It featured an all aluminium alloy 2,133 cc (130.2 cu in) (2.1 L) 20v DOHC engine slightly smaller than that of the Audi Quattro (in order to qualify for the 3-litre engine class after the scale factor applied to turbo engines). In road-going form, the engine was capable of producing 225 kW (306 PS; 302 bhp),[1] with the competition cars initially producing around 331 kW (450 PS; 444 bhp).[1]

The vehicle also featured a body shell composed of carbon-kevlar[1] and boasting wider arches, wider wheels (nine inches as compared to the Ur-Quattro's optional 8-inch-wide (200 mm) wheel rim), the steeper windscreen rake of the Audi 80 (requested by the Audi Sport rally team drivers to reduce internal reflections from the dashboard for improved visibility) and, most noticeably, a 320 mm (12.6 in) shorter wheelbase.

In addition to Group B competition in rallying, the Sport Quattro won the 1985 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb with Michèle Mouton in the driving seat, setting a record time in the process.[21] 224 cars of this "short version" Sport Quattro were built, and were offered for sale for 203,850 German Marks.[1]

Sport Quattro S1 E2

Audi Sport Quattro at Legendy 2014 car show in Prague

The Audi Sport Quattro S1 E2 was introduced at the end of 1985 as an update to the Audi Sport Quattro. The car featured an inline 5-cylinder engine that displaced 2,110 cc (128.8 cu in) and produced an officially quoted figure of 350 kW (480 PS; 470 bhp).[1] However, the turbocharger utilised a recirculating air system, with the aim of keeping the turbo spinning at high rpm, when the driver closed the throttle, either to back off during cornering, or on gearshifts. This allowed the engine to resume full power immediately after the resumption of full throttle, reducing turbo lag. The actual power figure was in excess of 500 bhp (373 kW; 507 PS) at 8000 rpm.[1]

In addition to the improved power output, an aggressive aerodynamic kit was added that featured very distinctive wings and spoilers to the front and rear of the car to increase downforce. The weight was reduced to 1,090 kg (2,403 lb), and the S1 could accelerate from 0-100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.1 seconds.[1] Some of the cars were supplied with a "power-shift gearbox", a forerunner of the DSG technology.[1]

The S1 E2 was successful in the rally circuit, with Walter Röhrl[1] and Christian Geistdörfer winning the 1985 San Remo Rally. A modified version of the E2, was also driven by Michèle Mouton.[1] The S1 evolution would become the final Group B car produced by Audi, with the works team withdrawing from the Championship following the 1986 rally in Portugal.[1] The final factory machines of 1986 were rated at 441 kW (600 PS; 591 bhp).[1] In 1987, the car won the Pikes Peak driven by Walter Röhrl.

WRC results

Summary
WRC victories

Ashes to Ashes

Gene Hunt's Quattro in the car park of BBC Television Centre

A red 1983 Quattro is driven by DCI Gene Hunt (played by Philip Glenister) in the television drama Ashes to Ashes (aired on BBC1 from 2008 to 2010). Two cars were used through the run of the series, the original, and a stunt car that was acquired for series 2. Both portrayed the same car.[22] The original vehicle (also used in the Children in Need Top Gear crossover mini-episode) lacked a sunroof which was present on the car(s) used in series 2 and 3, hence a fake one was added for the sake of continuity. The stunt car was written off for the jump in series 3, episode 1 by the director of that episode and used as a parts and interior shots car until it was shot up in the finale, leaving the original intact[23]

In the run-up to the 2010 general election, a campaign poster by the incumbent Labour Party government portrayed Conservative Party and opposition leader David Cameron as Gene Hunt sitting on the bonnet of the iconic red Audi Quattro and urged voters not to allow Cameron to take Britain "back to the 1980s" by electing his party into government amid fears that it would lead to a repeat of the social unrest and unemployment that Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government of that era oversaw. The image was then adopted by the Conservatives, with the slogan "Fire up the Quattro, it's time for change",[24] with the comment 'Idea kindly donated by the Labour Party'. "Fire up the Quattro" was a call to action uttered by DCI Hunt in Ashes to Ashes.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 "25 Years of Audi Quattro" (Press release). Audi of America Press Site. 22 February 2005. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  2. ↑ 2.0 2.1 World Cars 1985. Herald Books. 1985. ISBN 0-910714-17-7. 
  3. ↑ 3.0 3.1 Achorn, George (16 March 2005). "Audi Tradition at the Techno Classica 2005". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  4. ↑ "1984 Audi Quattro Treser Coupé". Motorbase. 19 September 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  5. ↑ "Drive: 1982-1985 Audi Quattro". Motortrend.com. October 2005. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  6. ↑ "History of the Audi ur-Quattro". Isham-research.co.uk. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  7. ↑ "Audi Quattro". Retro Car Icons. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  8. ↑ Severson, Aaron (23 October 2013). "Legend of the Quattro". Autoweek. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  9. ↑ Jacobs, Ed (September 1979). "4WD AMC Eagle - passenger comfort, all-weather capability". Popular Science 215 (3): 90–91. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  10. ↑ Sass, Rob (9 March 2008). "A Breed of 4-by-4 Hatched on the Fly". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  11. ↑ "Concept Cars: Audi Quattro Spyder". Diseno-art.com. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  12. ↑ Adams, Kieth (7 July 2013). "Friday concept: Audi Quattro Spyder". Classics.honestjohn.co.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  13. ↑ "Audi quattro concept". www.audi.com. Audi. Archived from the original on 3 October 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  14. ↑ Kable, Greg (8 October 2010). "Audi to build reborn Quattro". Autocar. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  15. ↑ Paukert, Chris (10 September 2013). "Audi Sport Quattro Concept speaks softly, carries a 700-hp stick". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  16. ↑ "Audi Sport quattro concept" (Press release). Audi-mediaservices.com. 4 September 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  17. ↑ "2014 Audi TT Quattro Sport Concept Review". Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  18. ↑ "Audi Sport Quattro S1". Rally Paradise. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  19. ↑ Holmes, Martin (11 July 1985). "The Sport's evolution". Autosport. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  20. ↑ "Audi ur-quattro and R8 e-tron win the Silvretta Classic and E-Auto Rally" (Press release). Audi-mediaservices.com. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  21. ↑ "Pikes Peak records shattered". The Post and Courier. 14 July 1985. p. 3-C. Retrieved 23 February 2012. [dead link]
  22. ↑ "img38/320/audi3u.jpg". imageshack.us. Retrieved 4 January 2014. [dead link]
  23. ↑ "Luigis • View topic - My 3.8 filming photos". Luigis.org.uk. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 
  24. ↑ "Gene Hunt poster sparks propaganda battle". BBC News. 3 April 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 

  • Walton, Jeremy (1984). Audi Quattro: The Development & Competition History. Sparkford, UK: Haynes. ISBN 0854294104. 

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